Marinate Chicken Thighs: Marinate chicken with 1/2 teaspoon of sugar, a dash of ground white pepper, 1 tbsp regular soy sauce, and 1 tablespoon of Shaoxing wine for 20 minutes.
Prepare Pressure Cooker: Heat up pressure cooker (Instant Pot: press Sauté button and click adjust button to go to Sauté More function). Make sure the pot is as hot as it can be when you place the onions in (Instant Pot: wait until indicator says HOT).
Sauté Onion, Shallot, and Garlic: Add 1 tablespoon of peanut oil into the pressure cooker. Add sliced onion & shallot, sauté until brown & fragrant. Add minced garlic, sauté until fragrant. Season layering with kosher salt & ground black pepper if desired.
Sauté Chicken Thighs: Pour in the chicken, sauté until slightly browned (let the chicken caramelize on one side first before stirring, you don’t have to stir continuously). Add in 1 ½ teaspoon of turmeric powder & 1 teaspoon cumin powder. Sauté & mix well to let the spices release their aroma. Add quartered potatoes, carrots, & 2 small bay leaves. Mix well.
Deglaze: Pour in 200 ml of coconut milk & 1 tablespoon of regular soy sauce, completely deglaze the bottom of the pot with a wooden spoon.
Pressure Cook Portuguese Chicken and Rice: Place a steamer rack into the pressure cooker and carefully place a bowl with (250g OR 1 cup + 1 ½ tablespoon) of Jasmine rice onto the rack. Pour (230 ml OR 1 cup minus 1 ½ tablespoon) of water into the bowl of rice. Make sure all the rice are soaked with water.
Immediately close lid and cook at High Pressure for 4 minutes. Turn off the heat and Full Natural Release. Manually release the remaining pressure by carefully turning the venting knob to the venting position. Open lid carefully.
Optional Flavor Enhancing Step - Preheat Oven: While the Portuguese chicken and rice is cooking in the pressure cooker, preheat oven to 425°F.
Thicken Coconut Sauce: Fluff rice and set aside to allow it to cool down. If you are making the optional fried rice, preheat a wok or skillet on high heat with 2 tablespoons of peanut oil. Turn heat to medium (Instant Pot: Press sauté button). Add green pepper, cook for one minute, taste the seasoning. Add more regular soy sauce, coconut milk, or salt if desired. Mix the cornstarch with water and mix it into the coconut sauce one third at a time until desired thickness. Turn off the heat.
Optional Flavor Enhancing Steps - Fried Rice: When the oil starts to smoke, add in the fluffed rice and press them against the wok with a wok chuan (wok spatula) to separate the rice from each other. Repeat for roughly 20 - 30 seconds. Add 1 beaten extra-large egg on top of the rice and quickly stir-fry the rice to allow the beaten egg to coat the rice evenly. Stir-fry for another minute until fragrant, then season with sea salt. Mix well and turn off the heat.
Optional Oven Step: Fill an oven-safe container half-way full with fried rice. Fill up the container with Portuguese chicken and vegetables. Add grated cheese (as much as you like!) over the top and place into oven for 5 – 10 minutes.
Serve: Remove from oven and serve immediately (piping hot!)